NUTRITION 101 – Donna Hayek

NUTRITION 101

  • PROTEINS:
    • Helps to make enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters
    • Supplies B vitamins, vitamin E, iron, zinc, and magnesium to help build bone and repair muscle
    • Food sources: chicken, fish, beef, pork, veal, eggs, milk, seeds, nuts, beans, tofu
    • A rule of thumb is to consume 15-30% of your calories daily

 

CARBOHYDRATES:

    • Provide the body with glucose, which is converted into energy to be used by the body’s cells, tissues, and organs; it is then stored in the liver and muscles for later use, especially with aerobic exercise
    • They include fiber, starches, and sugars, fiber and starches are considered complex carbohydrates, and sugars are considered simple carbohydrates. 
    • Complex carbohydrates take longer to digest because they need to be broken down; therefore, keep you fuller for a longer time; whereas simple carbohydrates are broken down immediately
    • Fiber’s role is to aid digestion, reduce cholesterol, and keep us regular. Getting 20-35 grams/day is recommended. It also contributes to weight loss by keeping us fuller longer and keeping the calories lower. Always increase water consumption when increasing fiber for better digestion.
    • Food sources: fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, beans, whole grains, potatoes, peas, corn, milk, cereal, bread, pasta, rice
    • A rule of thumb is to consume 40-50% of your calories daily

 

  • FAT:
    • Gives the body energy to support cell function, helps protect organs, keeps the body warm, helps the body to absorb nutrients, and produces hormones
    • Subtypes include trans-fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, omega-3 fat
    • Food sources: vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, fish, milk, cheese, butter, avocado, eggs, olives, sweets (cookies, candy, cake)
    • A rule of thumb is to consume 20-35 grams of fat daily, with 7-10% as saturated fat and 10-15% as unsaturated fat

 

  • WATER:
    • Helps lubricate joints, keeps skin and nails healthy, and increases metabolism
    • Dehydration signs are tiredness, dizziness, increased headaches, decrease in concentration and coordination, less blood volume due to thicker blood, and a decrease in the movement of nutrients through the body, can increase the risk of free-radical damage in the body’s cells and tissues, which could increase a person’s risk of chronic diseases, such as constipation, falls, urinary tract infections and kidney stones. Urine color should be a light color; if it’s a dark color, that indicates dehydration.
    • A rule of thumb is to drink your weight in kilograms in ounces.

 

Portion Control for Your Plate